2. Case Building 1. Theme: A theme is a single, short sentence that explains the main idea behind your case. The purpose of a theme is to show the 'big picture' behind your argumentation and its importance/actuality. Every speaker should (possibly repeatedly) state the theme in his/her speech. 2. Definition: The purpose of a definition is not so much to explain what the words of the motion mean in general, but rather what they mean in the context of your debate. 3. Framework: In some cases, especially for complicated topics, is makes sense for a proposition to explicitly name criteria the arguments of your debate should be judged upon. This is called a framework and can be used to limit the „battleground“ of your debate. 4. Arguments: 3(2) individual reasons that support your side. Also think about how to support them. 5. Destructive arguments: Sometimes there are some arguments that are absolutely destructive for your side of the debate. Make sure you identify those and prepare to oppose them. 6. Rebuttal: Think of some fundamental points of the opposing side and find ways of attacking them.
4. 1. Label - a single sentence that can be used when referring to the argument; particularly useful for adjudicators, so speak slowly. 2. Explanation - theoretical reasoning explaining why the argument is true. This part should lead the audience to wonder: „OK, this sounds good, but is it actually true in real life?“ 3. Evidence - one or two pieces of evidence showing that the argument is not merely theoretical; should lead the audience to wonder: „Alright, this must be true, but how does it support your case?“; evidence may consist of: • examples (current events, past events, history) • statistics • quotes • ... • weak evidence: personal experience, hypothetic examples. 4. Summary (link) - shows how what you just proved supports your side of the debate; throughout a lengthy argument, the audience may well lose track of what connects your reasoning to the motion, so this can be of crucial importance.
6. Affirmative Side Negative (Opposition) Side 1st speaker 1. Greeting. Introduction. 2. Define the topic and present the team line. 3. Introduce the definition and criteria / framework. 4. Introduce the speakers and outline what each speaker will say. 5. Begin your team’s arguments: label them & support. 6. Summarize your own case 1. Greeting. Introduction. 2. Present the team line. 3. Accept or challenge / reject the definition and criteria (if reject then justify). 4. Introduce the speakers and outline what each speaker will say (also called Team Split). 5. Rebuttal. 6. Begin your team’s arguments: label them & support. 7. Summarize your own case. 2nd speaker 1. Introduction. 2. Reaffirm the team line. 3. Rebut some of the arguments of the opponent’s side. 4. Summarize your own first speaker (optional). Support arguments with reasons and evidence. 5. Summarize your team case. 3rd speaker 1. Introduction. 2. Reaffirm the team line. 3. Rebut the arguments of the opposition side, 4. Summarize your side’s arguments. 5. Present a conclusion (also called Ending).
7. Structuring Reply Speeches(feel free to be creative, this is just a hint): 1. Introduction: • welcome back, possibly restate team line; • say you are going to summarize / again have a look at clash points). 2. Clash points: • 2-5 major points both sides have been arguing about; • say what both sides said and why the argument falls to your side. 3. Questions: • 3-6 rhetorical questions the answer to which should imply your side is right, framing the major clash points. 4. Creative Part (or so we may call it) e.g.: • philosophical context; • contrast between sides; • similes, imagery; • outlook. General tips: speak slowly, use gestures, make it enjoyable to listen to, don't refute single points, don't bring new arguments.
8. Round Time Speech: A 1 3 (6 min) Cross-questioning: N 3 – A 1 2 (3 min) Speech: N 1 3 (6 min) Cross-questioning: A 3 – N 1 2 (3 min) Speech: A 2 3 (6 min) Cross-questioning: N 1 – A 2 2 (3 min) Speech: N 2 3 (6 min) Cross-questioning: A 1 – N 2 2 (3 min) Speech: A 3 3 (5 min) Speech: N 3 3 (5 min) Preparation Time Affirmative Party 5 (5 min) Negative Party 5 (7 min)
9. 1. Know in advance how to oppose destructive arguments. How opponents can ruin your arguments How to defend your own points / overcome or oppose their arguments #1 #2 #3 Sometimes there are some arguments that are absolutely destructive for your side of the debate. Make sure you identify those and prepare to oppose them. 2. Know in advance what questions your opponents can ask you to ruin your arguments and get ready to answer them. Your opponents questions How to answer their questions to defend your own points #1 #2 #3
10. Rebuttal: 1. Think of some fundamental points of the opposing side and find ways of attacking them. Argument against Your questions #1 #2 #3 Argument against How to overcome/ Why don’t agree #1 #2 #3