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Главная » Статьи » Обучение письму: сочинения на английском » C2: Сочинение

План сочинения. Средства логической связи.

План - схема сочинения/эссе с элементами рассуждения (for & against)
при выполнении письменного экзаменационного задания по английскому языку
в формате ЕГЭ: С2 сочинение с элементами рассуждения



§  1. В первом абзаце сформулируйте проблему, которую вы будете обсуждать, однако не повторяйте тему сочинения слово в слово. Представьте, что ваш читатель не знает, о чем пройдет речь, и попытайтесь объяснить ему проблему другими словами; а также выскажите отношение к данной проблеме. 

Перефразируем / переформулируем тему сочинения.

Выражаем отношение к данной проблеме.


§ 
2. Во втором абзаце выделите аргументы, поддерживающие данную точку зрения. Подумайте о доказательствах и примерах в поддержку данной точки зрения.
Вводное предложение, в котором говорится о преимуществах, данной точки зрения.
Ср-во логической связи:
представление 1-го аргумента
,
 1-й аргумент в поддержку данной точки зрения.
Ср-во логической связи:
подтверждение 1-го аргумента
,
пример / подтверждение выдвинутого аргумента.
Ср-во логической связи:
представление 2-го аргумента
,

2-й аргумент в поддержку данной точки зрения.
Ср-во логической связи: 
подтверждение 2-го аргумента
,
пример / подтверждение выдвинутого аргумента.
Ср-во логической связи:
представление 3-го аргумента
,

3-й аргумент в поддержку данной точки зрения.
Ср-во логической связи: 
подтверждение 3-го аргумента
,
пример / подтверждение выдвинутого аргумента.



§
3. В третьем абзаце выделите противоположные вашему мнению аспекты проблемы, подумайте о разумных аргументах в поддержку противоположной точки зрения. Постарайтесь соблюсти баланс между абзацами.
Ср-во логической связи:
выражение противоположной идеи,


вводное предложение, в котором говорится
о недостатках / или о противоположной точке зрения.

Ср-во логической связи:
представление 1-го аргумента
,
ср-во лог св:
мнение оппонентов, 

1-й аргумент в поддержку противоположной точки зрения.
Ср-во логической связи:
подтверждение 1-го аргумента
,
пример / подтверждение выдвинутого аргумента.
Ср-во логической связи:
представление 2-го аргумента
,
ср-во лог св: мнение оппонентов,
2-й аргумент в поддержку противоположной точки зрения.
Ср-во логической связи:
подтверждение 2-го аргумента
,
пример / подтверждение выдвинутого аргумента.
Ср-во логической связи:
представление 3-го аргумента
.
ср-во лог св: мнение оппонентов, 
3-й аргумент в поддержку противоположной точки зрения.


Ср-во логической связи:
подтверждение 3-го аргумента,
пример / подтверждение выдвинутого аргумента.



§ 4. В заключительном абзаце сделайте обобщающий вывод по проблеме, которую вы обсуждали: т.е. вывод должен иметь взвешенный баланс между вашим мнением и мнением оппонентов. Это покажет, что вы рассматриваете свое сочинение как единое целое. Вы также должны окончательно сформулировать свое мнение (или предложить пути решения данной проблемы).
Ср-во лог св:
заключение,


сбалансированный вывод.
Ср-во лог св:
ваше мнение,

формулировка собственного мнения.




Вводные фразы и предложения, средства логической связи / союзы

применяемые при выполнении письменного экзаменационного задания по английскому языку
в формате ЕГЭ: С2 сочинение с элементами рассуждения



ВВОДНЫЕ ФРАЗЫ / ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЯ (topic sentences):

  • § 1. Перефразируем / переформулируем тему сочинения:

 - Lots of people prefer + Ving/N rather than +Ving/N

 - The subject of  +Ving/N is very controversial.

 - Have you ever considered  +Ving/N

 - Ving/N is a major (technological) breakthrough of the twentieth century.

 - At some point in their lives most people have daydreamed about  +Ving/N.

-  There are many points to take into consideration with regard to the benefits and drawbacks of  +Ving/N.

 - Many people enjoy  +Ving/N as it is an excellent way of  +Ving/N.

 - Ving/N is causing more problems than anyone could have imagined.


  • § 2. Вводное предложение, в котором говорится о преимуществах, поддерживаемой вами точки зрения:

 - There are some positive aspects to +Ving/N.

 - There are some (a lot of) advantages.

 - There are many things to be said in favour of  +Ving/N.

 - There is no doubt that  +Ving/N has a lot of advantages.

 - Ving/N has some advantages.

 - The advantages of  +Ving/N are numerous.

 - There are some reasons for supporting  +Ving/N.

 - There are some reasons in favour of  +Ving/N.


  • § 3. Вводное предложение, в котором говорится о недостатках / или о противоположной точке зрения:

 - There are some negative aspects to +Ving/N.

 - Ving/N has its problems, too.

 - Ving/N has some disadvantages.

 - There are some disadvantages.

 - There are drawbacks to  +Ving/N.


  • § 4. Сбалансированный вывод:

 - There are strong arguments both for and against the  +Ving/N. Yet, despite some problems, it seems that the benefits are invaluable.

 - On balance, it must be said that although  +Ving/N sounds like an end  to all problems, it often is not. In many cases it can be more (difficult/hard...) than  +Ving/N, mainly due to the fact that it involves  +Ving/N.

 - Despite its drawbacks, Ving/N still has a lot of advantages.

 - Although there are some disadvantages / negative aspects to  +Ving/N, it is worth it.

 - There are many arguments both for and against  +Ving/N. Taking everything into account, Ving/N is the best way of  +Ving/N.





СРЕДСТВА ЛОГИЧЕСКОЙ СВЯЗИ / СОЮЗЫ

Представление аргументов


The main argument in favour/against is...

Another main argument in favour of  +Ving/N is...

The main/Another/The further
advantage/disadvantage of
+Ving/N
First of all, I would like to consider...
The first thing to be considered is...
What matters most in this case is ...
Another problem is that...

To begin with,...
To start with,...

In the first place,...

First of all,...
Finally,...
Lastl,...


Besides,...also...
In addition,...
What is more,...
Moreover,...

More than that,...
Furthermore,...
In addition to this,...



Подтверждение аргументов

for this reason
consequently
as a result
so
because/as/since
as a consequence
according to this
therefore
that is why
thus
... because of ...
... as a result of ...
... owing to ...
... due to ...
... as a consequence of ...


Примеры

for example,...
for instance,...
such as
like


Выражение противоположной идеи

On the other hand,...
However,...
Nevertheless,...
Apart from that...

Despite this,...
Despite the fact that...
In spite of the fact that...

Yet,...
..., though
... although ...
... even though ...
... whereas ...

Выражение противоположного мнения

According to other people.../ with reference to...
Many people are in favour of / against...
Some people say / argue that...
It is popularly believed that..
Opponents of this view say...
It is said/believed that...

There is no doubt that...
It cannot be denied that...
It goes without saying that...
We must admit that some people think...

  


Заключение

To sum up,...
In conclusion,...
Taking everything into account,...
All things considered,...
To conclude, I would argue that...
On this basis, I can conclude that ...
In conclusion, I would like to stress that...
All in all,...


Выражение собственного мнения

I agree/disagree
In my opinion / view,...
To my mind / way of thinking...
From my point of view,...
As far as I am concerned,...
Personally I believe that...
It seems to me that...
I am in favour of...
I am against the idea of...
I feel very strongly that...
I am inclined to believe that...
It seems to me that...
As for me...





Категория: C2: Сочинение | Добавил: teacher (21.09.2013)
Просмотров: 3266 | Комментарии: 4 | Рейтинг: 0.0/0
Всего комментариев: 4
4 Дюха   (14.05.2013 22:45)
...people. Last, that I would like to consider is that they can bite you because you can't teach them to do tricks.

Taking everything into account, there are strong arguments both for and against having hamsters. Yet, despite some problems, it seems that the benefit are invaluable. I'm in favour of hamsters than other animals as they edare one of the best animals for children in the world.

3 Дюха   (11.05.2013 21:35)
Hamsters the best pets for children.
A lot of people prefer having hamsters than other animals. Personally I believe, that other animals for children in the world.

There are many things to be said in favour of having hamsters. First of all, I would like to consider, that hamsters make great pets for children, because they are small and cute. Another main argument in favour of having hamsters is that they are not expensive to keep. So they don't need a lot. Finally, the main argument in favour of having hamsters is that they are easy to look after as a result that they don't need much attention.

However, as some people say, there are some negative aspects to having hamsters. The first thing to be considered is that they aren't fun to play with , consequently that they are fightened of...
Серпов Андрей 6Б.

2 калькулятор   (21.04.2013 11:45)
1. Many people believe that there won't be any schools in the future. It seems to me that instead, students will learn at home with the help of a personal computer and the Internet.

2. It is true that technology plays a big part in the learning today. As for me, there are some advantages. To begin with, to my mind, you can keep notes of lectures or school assignments because a computer has the program for writing lectures. What is more, from my point of view, students go online to look up useful information or do an online course as you can find everything in the Internet. Another main argument in favour, it seems to me is that of you have a personal computer, you won't take heavy books to school as you can learn online at home.

3. However many people are against learning at home with a computer. To start with, opponents of this view say that a computer will never be able to replace teachers as teachers motivate their students. Another problem is that some people say teachers show young children how to behave and act as role models for them.

4. To sum up technology can help students learn things. Unfortunately it cannot offer them the inspiration and support that teachers can. On balance it must be said that although learning online sounds like an end to all problems, it often is not. In my opinion that in the future we will be learning online.
Кулик Анастасия, 6 "Б" класс.

1 Дюха   (20.04.2013 15:58)
Пример эссе на тему "Dogs is men`s best friends"
Many peple prefer having dogs rather than other pets. I feel very strongly that dogs are the best men`s friends

There are some positive aspects to having dogs. To start with, I believe that dogs are very playful.Consequently children really love them.Besides, from my point of view, dogs are very obedient. As a result, they obbey commads. Finally,as far as I`m concered, dogs are very loyal pets. According to this, they never run away from their owners.

On the other hand,according to other people,there are some negative aspects to having dogs. To begin with, some people say that dogs need a lot of space because they are very energetic animals. What is more,it`s so popular believed that dogs are very noisy. For this reason, they can cause problems with neibours.

To sum up, there are strong argumentsboth for and against having dogs. Yet, despite some problems, it seems that the benefits are invaluable. Personally I believe that dogs are men`s best friends.

Серпов Тимофей 6 б

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